RBI definition of public deposit in NBFC law

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The term ‘deposit’ is defined under Section 45 I(bb) of the RBI Act, 1934. ‘Deposit’ includes and shall be deemed always to have included any receipt of money by way of deposit or loan or in any other form but does not include:
i. amount raised by way of share capital, or contributed as capital by partners of a firm;
ii. amount received from a scheduled bank, a co-operative bank, a banking company, Development bank, State Financial Corporation, IDBI or any other institution specified by RBI;

iii. amount received in ordinary course of business by way of security deposit, dealership deposit, earnest money, advance against orders for goods, properties or services;
iv. amount received by a registered money lender other than a body corporate;
v. amount received by way of subscriptions in respect of a ‘Chit’.

Paragraph 2(1)(xii) of the Non-Banking Financial Companies Acceptance of Public Deposits (Reserve Bank) Directions, 1998 defines a ‘ public deposit’ as a ‘deposit’ as defined under Section 45 I(bb) of the RBI Act, 1934 and further excludes the following:
a. amount received from the Central/ State Government or any other source where repayment is guaranteed by Central/ State Government or any amount received from local authority or foreign government or any foreign citizen/ authority/ person;
b. any amount received from financial institutions specified by RBI for this purpose;
c. any amount received by a company from any other company;
d. amount received by way of subscriptions to shares, stock, bonds or debentures pending allotment or by way of calls in advance if such amount is not repayable to the members under the articles of association of the company;
e. amount received from directors of a company or from its shareholders by private company or by a private company which has become a public company;
f. amount raised by issue of bonds or debentures secured by mortgage of any immovable property or other asset of the company subject to conditions;
fa. any amount raised by issuance of non-convertible debentures with a maturity more than one year and having the minimum subscription per investor at ? 1 crore and above, provided it is in accordance with the guidelines issued by the Bank.
g. the amount brought in by the promoters by way of unsecured loan;
h. amount received from a mutual fund;
i. any amount received as hybrid debt or subordinated debt;
j. amount received from a relative of the director of an NBFC;
k. any amount received by issuance of Commercial Paper.
l. any amount received by a systemically important non-deposit taking non-banking financial company by issuance of ‘perpetual debt instruments’
m. any amount raised by the issue of infrastructure bonds by an Infrastructure Finance Company
Thus, the directions exclude from the definition of public deposit, amount raised from certain set of informed lenders who can make independent decision.

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